This paper sheds light upon the Iraqi citadels during the Ottoman era through their typology, their plans and architecture. It constitutes an attempt to study an important aspect of the military architecture in Iraq and the motives behind its building, which are related to the country’s political, military, social, and economic context. The description and documentation of the citadels’ examples will certainly contribute to their preservation from loss, being a cultural heritage that represents a particular historical period. The study of their planning in comparison to other citadels located in different parts of the country and in the nearby or far regions, helps in knowing their degree of affectivity.
Citadels - Iraq, Iraq, Ottoman Rule